An employee named H. Speckens transformed the carbonization product of peat into a benzene similar to organic liquid at 450 °C and under a hydrogen pressure of 150 atm in the private lab of Friedrich Bergius. Further experiments with brown and black coal also produced the benzene similar to organic liquid. In the same year, Friedrich Bergius filed a patent application for a procedure for “coal-to-liquids” – the Bergius-Pier process.